Language name and locationː Toba-Maskoy, Paraguay [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区托巴马斯科伊语, 巴拉圭

 

1. ɬema

2. hanet

3. hanetoɬemʔa        

5. ɬememek

6. ɬema-nekhaʔ-emek

7. hanet-nekhaʔ-emek

8. hanetoɬemʔa-nekhaʔ-emek

10. saʋhemejok

 

Linguist providing data and dateː Mr. Hannes Kalisch, Nengvaanemkeskama,  Nempayvaam Enlhet, Ya’alve-Saanga, Paraguay. January 22, 2013.

提供资的语言: Mr. Hannes Kalisch, 2013 年 1 月 22 日.

 

Other comments: Toba-Enenlhet or Toba-Maskoy has a traditional counting system up to ten made up by the reference to hands. Probably, it extended up to twenty (as it do in other languages of the family), but the living toba-enenlhet-elders don’t remember the correspoding terms. Also, they don’t remember the term for four, but use a term derived from Spanish: kuatolo.

For 1 to 3, the Toba-Enenlhet use exclusively the Toba-Enenlhet terms

For 4 and more, they use the Spanish numerals

* 2 and 3 (and 7, 8, respectively) indicate the gender of the entity which is counted:

hanet (fem), apqanet (masc), engqanet (1.pl)

hanetoɬemɁa (fem), apqanetoɬemɁa (masc), engqanetoɬemɁa (1.pl)

* some notes to the syntactic use of numerals you can find in:

Unruh, Ernesto; Kalisch, Hannes; Romero, Manolo. 2003. Enenlhet Apaivoma.Nentengiai'a nengiangvaiakmoho neliateikamaha enenlhet apaivoma. Guía para el aprendizaje del idioma materno toba. Biblioteca Paraguaya de Antropología, Vol. 43. Ya'alve-Saanga: Nengvaanemkeskama Nempayvaam Enlhet.

website: http://www.enlhet.org/pdf/13.pdf

or http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/pubman/faces/viewItemFullPage.jsp?itemId=escidoc:402055 

 

Toba-Maskoy phonemic chart:

Consonantsː

 

Labial

Alveolar

 Velar

Uvular

Glottal

Plosives

p

     t

    k

 q, ɢ

ʔ

Fricatives

    

  s

 

  

    h

Lateral fricative

 

     ɬ

   

 

Nasals

m

    n

ŋ

 

 

Glottalized nasals

    mˀ

 nˀ

ŋˀ

 

 

Lat.approximant

 

  l

 

 

 

Approximants

    ʋ

 

    j

   

Glottalized approximants

    ʋˀ

 

    jˀ

 

 

Toba-Enenlhet permits the lengthening of consonants.

Vowelsː

 

Front

Central

Back

Mid

   e

  

   o

Low

 

   a

   

 


 

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