Language name and locationː Saaroa, Kaohsiung, Taiwan [Refer to Ethnologue]
言名称和分布地区沙阿鲁阿语, 台南部高雄县桃源乡桃源村和高中村

 

1. t͡saːni / ut͡sani / t͡sa-t͡siɬi

21.   ma-pua-ɬɨ-ut͡sani

2. suːa / usua / sa-sua

22.   ma-pua-ɬɨ-usua

3. tuːlu / utulu / ta-tulu

23.   ma-pua-ɬɨ-utulu

4. paːtɨ / upatɨ / a-upatɨ

24.   ma-pua-ɬɨ-upatɨ

5. ku-lima / ulima / la-lima

25.   ma-pua-ɬɨ-ulima

6. kɨ-nɨmɨ / ɨnɨmɨ / a-ɨnɨmɨ

26.   ma-pua-ɬɨ-ɨnɨmɨ

7. ku-pitu / upitu / pa-pitu

27.   ma-pua-ɬɨ-upitu

8. ku-alu / ualu / la-la-alu

28.   ma-pua-ɬɨ-ualu

9. ku-sia / usia / sa-sia

29.   ma-pua-ɬɨ-usia

10. ku-maːɬɨ / maːlɨ / ʔumara-maːɬɨ

30.   ma-tulu-ɬu

11. laiɬa-ut͡sani / ʔumara-rai-t͡sa-t͡sa-t͡siɬi

40.   ma-upatɨɨ

12. laiɬa-usua/ ʔumara-rai-sa-sua

50.   ma-lima-ɬɨ

13. laiɬa-utulu / ʔumara-rai-ta-tulu

60.   ma-ɨnɨmɨ-ɬɨ

14. laiɬa-upatɨ / ʔumara-rai-a-upatɨ

70.   ma-pitu-ɬɨ

15. laiɬa-ulima/ ʔumara-rai-la-lima

80.   ma-alɨɨ

16. laiɬa-ɨnɨmɨ/ ʔumara-rai-a-ɨnɨmɨ

90.   ma-sia-ɬɨ

17. laiɬa-upitu/ ʔumara-rai-pa-pitu

100.  (ut͡sani) ɬimiʔuŋu

18. laiɬa-ualu/ ʔumara-rai-la-la-alu

200.  usua ɬimiʔuŋu

19. laiɬa-usia/ ʔumara-rai-sa-sia

1000. ut͡sani ɬimiʔaʔili

20. ma-pua-ɬɨ

2000. usua ɬimiʔaʔili

 

Linguist providing data and dateː Dr. Chia-jung Pan, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, June 16, 2013.
Referenceː Chia-jung Pan. A Grammar of Lha'alua, an Austronesian Language of Taiwan. Doctorial thesis submitted to the School of Arts and Social Sciences, James Cook University, Australia. March, 2012. 
供资料的语言学家: 潘家荣博士 , 2013 年 6 月 16 日

 

Other comments: Saaroa or Lha'alua has a decimal system. Lha’alua (known as Saaroa), is an Austronesian language of Taiwan. Lha’alua is spoken in Taoyuan Village and Kaochung Village, Taoyuan District, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. There are approximately 400 people of Lha’alua. At the moment, 10-15 people are able to speak the language. The language status of Lha’alua is moribund.  Most Formosan languages, Lha’alua (Saaroa) language has three distinctions from 1 to 10 (serial counting, human, and non-human), and two distinctions above 11 (human and non-human).

 Notes:

  1. Serial counting numerals from one to ten are based on the numeral forms (i.e.

       roots) of nonhuman and human numerals. Numerals from ‘one’ to ‘four’ are formed

       by vowel lengthening. Numerals from ‘five’ to ‘ten’ are formed by prefixing ku- to

     the numeral bound root. For the numeral ‘six’, ku- undergoes vowel harmony and

     becomes ke- in that the following syllables contain the high central unrounded

     vowel [i], transcribed as e. Nonhuman numerals from one to ten begin with the

     initial u. For ‘six’, u undergoes vowel harmony  and becomes e because the

     following syllables consist of the high central unrounded vowel [i], transcribed as

     e.  It is difficult to make a decision that the initial u is a nonhuman prefix (i.e. u-)

     which is added to the numeral root (e.g. ucani ‘one’ as u-cani). The reason can be

     attributed by the fact that numerals from ten to ninety, numerals from one hundred

     to nine hundred, numerals from one thousand to nine thousand, and numerals

     higher than ten thousand all consist of the nonhuman numerals from one to ten as

     base to derive human numerals.

     In human numerals, ‘one’, ‘two’, ‘three’, ‘four’, ‘five’, ‘six’, ‘seven’, ‘nine’ and

     ‘how much/how many’ are formed by (C)a- reduplication. a- reduplication applies

     when the numeral root is vowel-initial. ‘Eight’ is formed by Ca- triplication. Ca

2. Numerals higher than ten:

    Knowledge of higher numerals is regarded as a token of expertise in the language.

    At present, old and fluent speakers tend to use Japanese numerals in everyday life,

    whereas young and non-fluent speakers employ Mandarin Chinese numerals instead.

    In Lha’alua, the distinction between serial counting and nonhuman numerals is

    neutralised in numerals higher than ten.

3. Numerals from ten to nineteen:

    Lha’alua  has two distinctions above 11 (human and non-human)ː numerals from 11
    to 19 are formed by addition, namely 10+1, 10+2, etc. Numerals from 11 to 19
    can be differentiated in terms of their reference to nonhuman or human participants.
    When expressing nonhuman numerals from 11 to 19, the nonhuman prefix
lailha-
    
‘TENS-’ is added to the numeral root from 1 to 9. 

    For example, lailha-ucani ‘11’ is expressed by lailha- ‘TENS-’ plus ucani ‘one’. The

     nonhuman numerals are used in counting numbers from 11 to 19. The formation of

    human numerals from 11 to 19 is indicated by the human prefix ’umara-rai- ‘TENS-’

    added to the human numeral stem from 1 to 9. For example, ’umara-rai-ca-cilhi ‘11’
   
is expressed by ’umara-rai-' 'TEENS-' plus ca-cilhi one'.

4. Numerals from ten to ninety:

   In Lha’alua, numerals from 10 to 90 are formed by multiplication, namely 10 x 1,

    10 x 2, etc, indicated by addition of the circumfix ma-…-lhe. Some numeral bound

    roots undergo morphophonemic alternations. For example, -cani of the numeral ‘10’

    becomes -a. For ‘20’, -sua becomes -pua. For ‘80’, -alu becomes -ale. The expression

   of ma-tulu-lhu ‘thirty’ constitutes an exception for numerals from 10 to 90. Due to

   vowel harmony, ma-…-lhe becomes ma-…-lhu. The nonhuman numerals are used in

   counting numbers from 10 to 90. The formation of human numerals from 10 to 90 is

   indicated by the prefix mata- referring to a human participant and the nonhuman

   numerals from 10 to 90 as a base in derivation. For instance, mata-ma-pua-lhe ‘20’ is

   formed by mata- plus ma-pua-lhe.

5. Numerals from one hundred to nine hundred: In Lha’alua, the numerals from 100 to

    900 are formed by multiplication, namely 100 x 1, 100 x 2, etc, indicated by the

    word lhimi’ungu ‘hundred’. Numerals from 100 to 900 can be divided into two 

    groups in terms of their referents or participants: nonhuman or human. The  

    expression of nonhuman numerals from 100 to 900 is indicated by the

    nonhuman numerals from 1 to 9 together with the word lhimi’ungu ‘hundred’. For

    example, ucani lhimi’ungu ‘100’ is expressed by ucani ‘1’ and lhimi’ungu ‘hundred’.

     It is not necessary to specify the numeral ucani ‘one’ when expressing ‘one hundred’;

    that is, just lhimi’ungu ‘hundred’ can denote ‘one hundred’. When ucani ‘one’ is not

     overtly specified, it only refers to nonhuman referents rather than human

     participants.

    The nonhuman numerals are used in counting numbers from 100 to 900. Human

     numerals from 100 to 900 are formed by the human prefix mata- added to the

     nonhuman numerals from 100 to 900 as a base in derivation. For instance, mata-

    ucani lhimi’ungu ‘100’ is expressed by mata- and ucani lhimi’ungu.

6. Numerals from one hundred to nine hundred:

    There is a difference between numerals from 10 to 90 (including lower numerals)

     and numerals from 100 to 900 (including numerals from 1000 to 9000). While the

    numerals from 10 to 90 form a phonological and grammatical word, numerals from

     100 to 900 consist of two separate phonological and grammatical words.

7. Numerals from one thousand to nine thousand:

    In Lha’alua, numerals from 1,000 to 9,000 are formed by multiplication, namely

     1,000 x 2, 1,000 x 3, etc, indicated by the word lhimi’a’ili ‘thousand’. There is a

    clear distinction between nonhuman and human numerals. Nonhuman numerals

    from 1000 to 9000 are indicated by the nonhuman numerals from 1 to 9 together

     with the word lhimi’a’ili ‘thousand’.

8. Numerals higher than ten thousand:

    Formosan languages like Thao ban ‘10,000’, Saisiyat ban ‘10,000’ and Atayal

     maN ‘10,000’ borrowed words for ‘10,000’ from non-AN sources (Blust 2009:275).

    These three forms are loan words from Taiwanese Southern Min ban ‘10,000’.

    Unlike other Formosan languages, there is no word for ‘10,000’ in Lha’alua. The

     formation of numerals from 10,000 to 90,000 is formed by multiplication, namely

    10 x 1 x 1000, 10 x 2 x 1000, 10 x 3 x 1000, etc. Numerals from 10,000 to 90,000

    have a basic distinction in terms of their reference to nonhuman or human

    participants. The nonhuman numeral ‘10,000’ is indicated by the nonhuman

    numeral ma-a-lhe ‘10’ together with the word lhimi’a’ili ‘thousand’. Nonhuman

    numerals from 20,000 to 90,000 are formed by a nonhuman numeral from 2 to 9,

    the nonhuman numeral ma-a-lhe ‘10’ as well as the word lhimi’a’ili ‘thousand’. For

    instance, usua ma-a-lhe lhimi’a’ili ‘20,000’ is expressed by usua ‘2’, ma-a-lhe ‘10’ and

    lhimi’a’ili ‘thousand’.

   The nonhuman numerals are used in counting numbers from 10,000 to 90,000.

    Human numerals from 10,000 to 90,000 are indicated by the prefix mata- (referring

    to human participants) added to the nonhuman numerals from 10,000 to 90,000 as

    a base in derivation. For example, mata-ma-a-lhe lhimi’a’ili ‘10,000’ is expressed by

    mata-, ma-a-lhe ‘10’ and lhimi’a’ili ‘thousand’..

    Similar to numerals from 100 to 900 and numerals from 1,000 to 9,000, the

    expression of ‘10,000’ consists of two phonological and grammatical words.

    Unlike ‘10,000’, the formation of numerals from 20,000 to 90,000 is composed of

    three phonological and grammatical words.

 

Lha'alua Phonemic Chart:

Consonants:

 

 Bilabial

Alveolar

 Palatal

   Velar

Glottal

Stops

p,(pʰ),(b)

   t,  (tʰ)

 

k,(kʰ),(ɡ) 

    ʔ

Fricatives

       v

     s

 

 

   (h)

Affricates

   

  ts, (tsʰ)

 (tɕ), (dz)

 

  

Nasals

    m

      n

    

   ŋ

 

Lateral

 

      l

 

 

 

Trill or flap

 

      r, ɾ

 

    

 

Lateral

 

      ɬ

     

 

 

 

Notes between traditional spellings and IPA transcriptionsː

c = IPA [t͡s]; lh = IPA [ɬ], e = IPA [ɨ]  

Vowelsː

 

Front

Mid

Back

High

  i, iː

    ɨ

  u, uː

High-mid

   

 

  o

Low-mid

  (ɛ)

 

 (ɔ)

Low

    

 a, aː

 

 

Noteː Long vowel is written double in traditional way. Loan phonemes (in the parentheses on the above tables)ː There are plenty of loan words in Lha’alua, many of which were introduced during the Japanese occupation period (1895-1945). Apart from Japanese, words were borrowed from Mandarin Chinese, Taiwanese Southern Min, and other aboriginal languages in the neighbouring area, e.g. Bunun. In my corpus, nine consonant phonemes and two vowel phonemes are found exclusively in
loan words.
Reported on 22nd Ethnologue:
Alternate Names: Hla’alua, La’alua, La’arua, Lha’alua, Pachien, Paichien, Rarua, Saarua, Saroa, Shishaban, Sisyaban. User Population: 10 (2012 C. Pan). Ethnic population: 300 (2000 UNESCO). Location: Kaohsiung county: enclave south and southeast of Minchuan, along Laonung river in west central mountains. Language Status: Nearly extinct. Classification: Austronesian, Tsouic. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kanakanabu. Typology: 13 consonants and 4 vowels. Language Use: Moribund (2000 S. Wurm). Few remaining speakers in 1990. Shifting to Bunun. Home. Elderly only. Neutral attitudes. Also use Bunun.


Language name and locationː Saaroa, Kaohsiung, Taiwan [Refer to Ethnologue]
言名称和分布地区沙阿鲁阿语, 台南 部高雄县桃源乡桃源村和高中村

 

1. caáni / ucáni / caciɬi

21.   mapúsanə ucáni

2. suua / usua / sasua

22.   mapúsanə usúa

3. tuulu / utulu / tatulu

23.   mapúsanə utúlu

4. paatə / upatə / aupatə

24.   mapúsanə upátə

5. kulima / ulima / lalima

25.   mapúsanə ulíma

6. kənəmə / ənəmə / aənəmə

26.   mapúsanə únəmə

7. kupitu / upitu / papitu

27.   mapúsanə upítu

8. kualu / ualu / lalaalu

28.   mapúsanə ualu

9. kusia / usia / sasia

29.   mapúsanə usia

10. kumaaɬə / maalə / ʔumaramaaɬə

30.   matúluɬ

11. láiɬa ucáni

40.   maupátəɬ

12. láiɬa usúa

50.   malímaɬ

13. láiɬa utúlu

60.   maə́nəməɬ

14. láiɬa upátə

70.   mapítuɬ

15. láiɬa ulíma

80.   maáləɬ

16. láiɬa únəmə

90.   masiʔaɬ

17. láiɬa upítu

100.  ɬimiuŋu

18. láiɬa ualu

200. 

19. láiɬa usia

1000. ɬimiaili

20. mapúaɬ

2000.  

 

Linguist providing data and dateː Prof. Paul Jen-kuei Li, Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, March 21, 1993.
供资料的语言学家: 李壬癸教授, 1993 年 3 月 21 日

 

Other comments: Saaroa has a decimal system. There are three forms of cardinal numbers from one to ten in Saaroa. The first one is used in series counting, the second for counting things and the third for counting human beings.


 

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