Language
name and locationː Saaroa,
Kaohsiung,
Taiwan
[Refer to
Ethnologue] 
1. t͡saːni / ut͡sani / t͡sat͡siɬi 
21. mapuaɬɨut͡sani 
2. suːa / usua / sasua 
22. mapuaɬɨusua 
3. tuːlu / utulu / tatulu 
23. mapuaɬɨutulu 
4. paːtɨ / upatɨ / aupatɨ 
24. mapuaɬɨupatɨ 
5. kulima / ulima / lalima 
25. mapuaɬɨulima 
6. kɨnɨmɨ / ɨnɨmɨ / aɨnɨmɨ 
26. mapuaɬɨɨnɨmɨ 
7. kupitu / upitu / papitu 
27. mapuaɬɨupitu 
8. kualu / ualu / lalaalu 
28. mapuaɬɨualu 
9. kusia / usia / sasia 
29. mapuaɬɨusia 
10. kumaːɬɨ / maːlɨ / ʔumaramaːɬɨ 
30. matuluɬu 
11. laiɬaut͡sani / ʔumararait͡sat͡sat͡siɬi 
40. maupatɨɬɨ 
12. laiɬausua/ ʔumararaisasua 
50. malimaɬɨ 
13. laiɬautulu / ʔumararaitatulu 
60. maɨnɨmɨɬɨ 
14. laiɬaupatɨ / ʔumararaiaupatɨ 
70. mapituɬɨ 
15. laiɬaulima/ ʔumararailalima 
80. maalɨɬɨ 
16. laiɬaɨnɨmɨ/ ʔumararaiaɨnɨmɨ 
90. masiaɬɨ 
17. laiɬaupitu/ ʔumararaipapitu 
100. (ut͡sani) ɬimiʔuŋu 
18. laiɬaualu/ ʔumararailalaalu 
200. usua ɬimiʔuŋu 
19. laiɬausia/ ʔumararaisasia 
1000. ut͡sani ɬimiʔaʔili 
20. mapuaɬɨ 
2000. usua ɬimiʔaʔili 
Linguist
providing data and dateː Dr. Chiajung Pan, Postdoctoral Research
Fellow, Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, June 16,
2013. 
Other comments: Saaroa or Lha'alua has a decimal system. Lha’alua (known as Saaroa), is an Austronesian language of Taiwan. Lha’alua is spoken in Taoyuan Village and Kaochung Village, Taoyuan District, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. There are approximately 400 people of Lha’alua. At the moment, 1015 people are able to speak the language. The language status of Lha’alua is moribund. Most Formosan languages, Lha’alua (Saaroa) language has three distinctions from 1 to 10 (serial counting, human, and nonhuman), and two distinctions above 11 (human and nonhuman). Notes: 1. Serial counting numerals from one to ten are based on the numeral forms (i.e. roots) of nonhuman and human numerals. Numerals from ‘one’ to ‘four’ are formed by vowel lengthening. Numerals from ‘five’ to ‘ten’ are formed by prefixing ku to the numeral bound root. For the numeral ‘six’, ku undergoes vowel harmony and becomes ke in that the following syllables contain the high central unrounded vowel [i], transcribed as e. Nonhuman numerals from one to ten begin with the initial u. For ‘six’, u undergoes vowel harmony and becomes e because the following syllables consist of the high central unrounded vowel [i], transcribed as e. It is difficult to make a decision that the initial u is a nonhuman prefix (i.e. u) which is added to the numeral root (e.g. ucani ‘one’ as ucani). The reason can be attributed by the fact that numerals from ten to ninety, numerals from one hundred to nine hundred, numerals from one thousand to nine thousand, and numerals higher than ten thousand all consist of the nonhuman numerals from one to ten as base to derive human numerals. In human numerals, ‘one’, ‘two’, ‘three’, ‘four’, ‘five’, ‘six’, ‘seven’, ‘nine’ and ‘how much/how many’ are formed by (C)a reduplication. a reduplication applies when the numeral root is vowelinitial. ‘Eight’ is formed by Ca triplication. Ca 2. Numerals higher than ten: Knowledge of higher numerals is regarded as a token of expertise in the language. At present, old and fluent speakers tend to use Japanese numerals in everyday life, whereas young and nonfluent speakers employ Mandarin Chinese numerals instead. In Lha’alua, the distinction between serial counting and nonhuman numerals is neutralised in numerals higher than ten. 3. Numerals from ten to nineteen:
Lha’alua has two distinctions above 11
(human and nonhuman)ː numerals from 11 For example, lailhaucani ‘11’ is expressed by lailha ‘TENS’ plus ucani ‘one’. The nonhuman numerals are used in counting numbers from 11 to 19. The formation of human numerals from 11 to 19 is indicated by the human prefix ’umararai ‘TENS’
added to the human numeral stem from 1 to 9. For example,
’umararaicacilhi ‘11’ 4. Numerals from ten to ninety: In Lha’alua, numerals from 10 to 90 are formed by multiplication, namely 10 x 1, 10 x 2, etc, indicated by addition of the circumfix ma…lhe. Some numeral bound roots undergo morphophonemic alternations. For example, cani of the numeral ‘10’ becomes a. For ‘20’, sua becomes pua. For ‘80’, alu becomes ale. The expression of matululhu ‘thirty’ constitutes an exception for numerals from 10 to 90. Due to vowel harmony, ma…lhe becomes ma…lhu. The nonhuman numerals are used in counting numbers from 10 to 90. The formation of human numerals from 10 to 90 is indicated by the prefix mata referring to a human participant and the nonhuman numerals from 10 to 90 as a base in derivation. For instance, matamapualhe ‘20’ is formed by mata plus mapualhe. 5. Numerals from one hundred to nine hundred: In Lha’alua, the numerals from 100 to 900 are formed by multiplication, namely 100 x 1, 100 x 2, etc, indicated by the word lhimi’ungu ‘hundred’. Numerals from 100 to 900 can be divided into two groups in terms of their referents or participants: nonhuman or human. The expression of nonhuman numerals from 100 to 900 is indicated by the nonhuman numerals from 1 to 9 together with the word lhimi’ungu ‘hundred’. For example, ucani lhimi’ungu ‘100’ is expressed by ucani ‘1’ and lhimi’ungu ‘hundred’. It is not necessary to specify the numeral ucani ‘one’ when expressing ‘one hundred’; that is, just lhimi’ungu ‘hundred’ can denote ‘one hundred’. When ucani ‘one’ is not overtly specified, it only refers to nonhuman referents rather than human participants. The nonhuman numerals are used in counting numbers from 100 to 900. Human numerals from 100 to 900 are formed by the human prefix mata added to the nonhuman numerals from 100 to 900 as a base in derivation. For instance, mata ucani lhimi’ungu ‘100’ is expressed by mata and ucani lhimi’ungu. 6. Numerals from one hundred to nine hundred: There is a difference between numerals from 10 to 90 (including lower numerals) and numerals from 100 to 900 (including numerals from 1000 to 9000). While the numerals from 10 to 90 form a phonological and grammatical word, numerals from 100 to 900 consist of two separate phonological and grammatical words. 7. Numerals from one thousand to nine thousand: In Lha’alua, numerals from 1,000 to 9,000 are formed by multiplication, namely 1,000 x 2, 1,000 x 3, etc, indicated by the word lhimi’a’ili ‘thousand’. There is a clear distinction between nonhuman and human numerals. Nonhuman numerals from 1000 to 9000 are indicated by the nonhuman numerals from 1 to 9 together with the word lhimi’a’ili ‘thousand’. 8. Numerals higher than ten thousand: Formosan languages like Thao ban ‘10,000’, Saisiyat ban ‘10,000’ and Atayal maN ‘10,000’ borrowed words for ‘10,000’ from nonAN sources (Blust 2009:275). These three forms are loan words from Taiwanese Southern Min ban ‘10,000’. Unlike other Formosan languages, there is no word for ‘10,000’ in Lha’alua. The formation of numerals from 10,000 to 90,000 is formed by multiplication, namely 10 x 1 x 1000, 10 x 2 x 1000, 10 x 3 x 1000, etc. Numerals from 10,000 to 90,000 have a basic distinction in terms of their reference to nonhuman or human participants. The nonhuman numeral ‘10,000’ is indicated by the nonhuman numeral maalhe ‘10’ together with the word lhimi’a’ili ‘thousand’. Nonhuman numerals from 20,000 to 90,000 are formed by a nonhuman numeral from 2 to 9, the nonhuman numeral maalhe ‘10’ as well as the word lhimi’a’ili ‘thousand’. For instance, usua maalhe lhimi’a’ili ‘20,000’ is expressed by usua ‘2’, maalhe ‘10’ and lhimi’a’ili ‘thousand’. The nonhuman numerals are used in counting numbers from 10,000 to 90,000. Human numerals from 10,000 to 90,000 are indicated by the prefix mata (referring to human participants) added to the nonhuman numerals from 10,000 to 90,000 as a base in derivation. For example, matamaalhe lhimi’a’ili ‘10,000’ is expressed by mata, maalhe ‘10’ and lhimi’a’ili ‘thousand’.. Similar to numerals from 100 to 900 and numerals from 1,000 to 9,000, the expression of ‘10,000’ consists of two phonological and grammatical words. Unlike ‘10,000’, the formation of numerals from 20,000 to 90,000 is composed of three phonological and grammatical words.
Lha'alua Phonemic Chart: Consonants:
Notes between traditional spellings and IPA transcriptionsː c = IPA [t͡s]; lh = IPA [ɬ], e = IPA [ɨ] Vowelsː
Noteː Long vowel is written double
in traditional way. Loan phonemes (in the
parentheses on the above tables)ː There are plenty of
loan words in Lha’alua, many of which were introduced
during the Japanese occupation
period (18951945). Apart from Japanese,
words were borrowed from Mandarin Chinese,
Taiwanese Southern Min, and
other aboriginal languages in the neighbouring area,
e.g. Bunun. In my corpus,
nine consonant phonemes and two vowel phonemes are found
exclusively in 
Language
name and locationː Saaroa,
Kaohsiung,
Taiwan
[Refer to
Ethnologue] 
1. caáni / ucáni / caciɬi 
21. mapúsanə ucáni 
2. suua / usua / sasua 
22. mapúsanə usúa 
3. tuulu / utulu / tatulu 
23. mapúsanə utúlu 
4. paatə / upatə / aupatə 
24. mapúsanə upátə 
5. kulima / ulima / lalima 
25. mapúsanə ulíma 
6. kənəmə / ənəmə / aənəmə 
26. mapúsanə únəmə 
7. kupitu / upitu / papitu 
27. mapúsanə upítu 
8. kualu / ualu / lalaalu 
28. mapúsanə ualu 
9. kusia / usia / sasia 
29. mapúsanə usia 
10. kumaaɬə / maalə / ʔumaramaaɬə 
30. matúluɬ 
11. láiɬa ucáni 
40. maupátəɬ 
12. láiɬa usúa 
50. malímaɬ 
13. láiɬa utúlu 
60. maə́nəməɬ 
14. láiɬa upátə 
70. mapítuɬ 
15. láiɬa ulíma 
80. maáləɬ 
16. láiɬa únəmə 
90. masiʔaɬ 
17. láiɬa upítu 
100. ɬimiuŋu 
18. láiɬa ualu 
200. 
19. láiɬa usia 
1000. ɬimiaili 
20. mapúaɬ 
2000. 
Linguist
providing data and dateː
Prof.
Paul Jenkuei Li,
Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan,

Other comments: Saaroa has a decimal system. There are three forms of cardinal numbers from one to ten in Saaroa. The first one is used in series counting, the second for counting things and the third for counting human beings. 
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