Language name and location: Rawang (Rvmø̀l), Myanmar [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区语 (Rvmø̀l方言), 缅甸


1. tʃiʔ (citation form); tʃi (when 

  combined with classifiers, e.g. tʃi-joʔ


21. əɲí sə́l tʃiʔ

2. əɲí

22. əɲí sə́l əɲí

3. əsɨ̀m

23. əɲí sə́l əsɨ̀m

4. əblì

24. əɲí sə́l əblì

5. puŋwà

25. əɲí sə́l puŋwà

6. təruʔ

26. əɲí sə́l təruʔ

7. səɲint (Cgg. Dø); ʃɨŋit (Cgg. Chang)

27. əɲí sə́l səɲint~ʃɨŋit

8. ʃət

28. əɲí sə́l ʃət

9. dəɡɨ̀

29. əɲí sə́l dəɡɨ̀

10.  tʃisə́l

30. əsɨ̀m sə́l

11. tʃisə́l tʃiʔ

40. əblì sə́l

12. tʃisə́l əɲí

50. puŋwà sə́l

13. tʃisə́l əsɨ̀m

60. təruʔ sə́l

14. tʃisə́l əblì

70. səɲint~ʃɨŋit sə́l

15. tʃisə́l puŋwà

80. ʃət sə́l

16. tʃisə́l təruʔ

90. dəɡɨ̀ sə́l

17. tʃisə́l səɲint~ʃɨŋit

100. tʃi já, 200.  əɲí já

18. tʃisə́l ʃət

400. əblì já, 800. ʃət já

19. tʃisə́l dəɡɨ̀

1000. tʃi kíŋ

20. əní sə́l

2000. əɲí kíŋ


Linguist providing data and dateː Mr. Nathan Straub, MA in Linguistics, Language Enhancement Centre, Payap University, Thailand, July 17, 2018, August 4, 2018.

供资料的语言学家: 曹内森先生 (泰国西北大学), 2018 年 7 月 17 日.


Other comments: Rvmø̀l Rawang has a decimal system. Rvmø̀l Rvwàng, a southern Dvrù dialect originally spoken north of Konglangpø, Putao District, Kachin State, Myanmar. It is geographically and linguistically transitional between western Dvngsar, Waqdvmkong (northern Mvtwàng), and Dvrù. Since at least the 1950s, many Rvmø̀l speakers have moved to Nokmong and to larger towns in Kachin State such as Putao and Myitkyina, and beyond. Data provided by Chømgunggang Dø and his daughter Chømgunggang Chang.

   The phonology of this dialect has not been fully analyzed yet. In general, however, this dialect has a similar phonemic system to Mvtwàng Rvwàng (R. Morse 1962/1963; S. Morse 1988, 1989) and Rvmø̀l Rvwàng (Straub 2016). 

   There are three tones on syllables that do not have stop finals, based on a scale of 5 (highest) to 1 (lowest): High /á/ 55~53, Mid /a/ 33, Low /à/ 31~11. Tone on syllables with final p/t/k/ or ʔ (the latter considered a tone-register complex) is non-distinctive, usually realized as high or high falling. Tone on minor syllables (Cə) is non-distinctive as well.

    Vowels: i, e [e~ɛ], a, u, o [o~ɔ], ə, ɨ. Initial consonants: p, b, t, d, k, g, s, z [dz], ts, tʃ, dʒ, m, n, ɲ, ŋ, h [h~x], j, l, r [ɹ~r~ɾ]. Voiceless stops and affricates are aspirated, although this is not indicated in the transcription for brevity's sake.

    Final consonants: p, t, k, m, n, ŋ, l, r, j.

    Diphthongs include /aj, əj, ɨj, uj, oj/. /ɨj/ is usually realized with a slightly longer vowel: [ɨˑj]; /aj/ may be considered an inherently-long-vowel counterpart to /əj/. Clusters observed include: /bl, pr, br, kr, gr/. The cluster /mj/ is found in Burmese loanwords, and the cluster /dw/ in Jinghpaw loanwords.

    In terms of phonological processes, two are observable here: 

    (1) Palatalization: The initial consonant /n/ becomes /ɲ/ when followed by the vowel /i/, e.g. əní sə́l→əɲí sə́l 'twenty'. Although this nasal palatalization is a regular process, the palatal nasal forms are given in the transcription here without abstracting them to their original alveolar nasal form /n/. The palatal nasal consonant also appears before other vowels, such as /a/ in /ɲaʔù/ 'to swallow', so it can definitely be considered a separate phoneme in the latter environment. 

   (2) Reduction to affricates: The numeral 4 is rendered /əblì/ in Dvrù and /əbrì/ in Mvpang Dvngsar, but in this dialect the *b{l,r} cluster is reduced to the affricate /dʒ/ as /ədʒì/.

  Morse, Robert H. 1962. Hierarchical levels of Rawang phonology. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University MA thesis in linguistics.
  Morse, Robert H. 1963. Phonology of Rawang. Anthropological Linguistics 5(5).
  Morse, Stephen A. 1988. A short update on Rawang phonology. Linguistics of the
  Tibeto-Burman Area 11(2). 120–132.
  Morse, Stephen A. 1989. Five Rawang dialects compared plus more. In David
  Bradley, Eugénie J. A. Henderson & Martine Mazaudon (eds.), Prosodic analysis and
  Asian linguistics: to honour R. K. Sprigg, 237–250. (Pacific Linguistics C-104).
  Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  Straub, Nathan. 2016. Direction and time reference in the Rvmøl (Dvru) dialect of
  Rawang, from northern Myanmar. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Payap University MA thesis
  in linguistics.


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