Language name and location: Domari, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Turkey [Refer to Ethnologue]
言名称和分布地区多马里语, 叙利亚, 伊拉克, 伊朗等中东, 北非国家和印度

 

1. yēka ~ yōka (short forms yē  ~ yō)

21.  wīst yēka

2. dədī, dī (modifier)

22.  wīst dədī

3. trən  / tɾən /

23.  wīst trən

4. štār  /ʃtaːɾ / 

24.  wīšštār < wīst štār

5. panɡ̌  / pandʒ / 

25.  wīst panɡ̌

6. šēš /ʃeːʃ/   (Kurdish)

26.  wīššēš < wīst šēš

7. ḥawt ~ ḥaft (Kurdish)

27.  wīst ḥawṭ ~ ḥašt

8. ḥašt (Kurdish)

28.  wīst ḥašt

9. nu (Kurdish) ~ nah (inherited)

29.  wīst nah ~ nu

10. dazz / dazː/ (Kurdish) 

30.  sī /siː/ (Kurdish)

11. dazz yēk

40.  čəl / tʃəl/ (Kurdish)

12. dazz dī

50.  pēnǧā /pe:ndʒaː /(Kurdish)

13. dazz trən

60.  trən wīst

14. dašštā < dazz štār

70.  trən wīst dazz

15. dazz panɡ̌

80.  trən wīst wīst ~ štār wīst

16. daššēš < dazz šēš

90.  ṣadd illa dazz ~ štār wīst dazz

17. dazz ḥawṭ ~ dazz ḥaft

100. ṣadd (Kurdish)

18. dazz h̩ašt 

200. dī ṣadd

19. dazz nah ~ nu

1000. hazār (Kurdish)

20. wīst (Kurdish)

2000. dī hazār

 

Linguist providing data and dateː Dr. Bruno Herin, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres, Belgium, February 13, 2013
供资料的语言学家: Dr. Bruno Herin, 2013 年 2 月 13 日.

 

Other comments: The data given above reflect forms recorded in several dialects of northern Domari (Aleppo, Saraqib and Beirut). The short forms yē and yō “one” are used as modifiers. The modified noun is also marked with the indefinite marker -ā(k): yē xašt-ā “one hand”, yō dīs-āk “one day”. The form dī “two” is used adnominally: dī wars “two years”, while dədī is a pro-form. Amongst the units, šēš “six”, ḥawt ~ ḥaft “seven”, ḥašt “eight” and nu “nine” were borrowed from Kurdish. Interestingly, an inherited form alternates for “nine”: nah. Tens from 20 to 50 were also borrowed from Kurdish, while 60 to 90 are formed by compounding a unit and Kurdish wīst “twenty” and inherited dazz “ten”. The compound ṣadd illa dazz “ninety” is a good example of the different layers of borrowing in northern Domari: ṣadd “hundred” was borrowed from Kurdish, illa “except” is from Arabic, and dazz is inherited. The form hazār “thousand” was also replicated from Kurdish.

In most contemporary dialects of southern Domari (spoken in Palestine and Jordan), numerals above five have been replaced by Arabic forms (Matras 2012). The original system was nevertheless documented by Macalister (1914:18-19). Forms are given respecting Macalister’s transcription:

Domari is an Indic language spoken by the Dōm, commonly described as the ''Gypsies'' of the Middle-East. The m are originally service-providing itinerant communities who left India at an early stage and spread across the Middle-East. The term m is itself cognate with the Indian caste name Dōm which is still widely used in India to designate a variety of peripatetic communities. Amongst the Indic languages spoken outside the Indian subcontinent, the most well-known and studied is Romani, the language of the European Roma. The Lom, located in Armenia and also in parts of Eastern Turkey, also spoke a fully-fledged Indic language but it has only survived as a lexicon within an Armenian matrix (Voskanian 2002). Domaaki and Parya are also diasporic Indic languages spoken outside or at the periphery of India but they remained typologically closer to Central Indo-Aryan languages.3 Although the historical links between Romani and Domari are still to a large extent obscure, it is now accepted that they are not sister-languages or even dialects of the same language.

Note that the traditional phonetic symbols and IPA transcriptionː

1. y = I.P.A. [j]

2. h̩ = I.P.A. [ħ]

3. š = I.P.A. [ʃ]

4. č = I.P.A. [tʃ]

5. ǧ, j = I.P.A. [dʒ]

6. s̩ = I.P.A. [s] ~ [sˤ]

7. t̩ = I.P.A. [t] ~ [tˤ]

 

Macron above vowel indicates length

 

References

Herin, Bruno (2012). The Domari language of Aleppo (Syria). Linguistic Discovery 12 (2), 1-52.

Macalister, R. A. S. (1914). The language of the Nawar or Zutt, the nomad smiths of Palestine. (Gypsy Lore Society Monographs 3) London: Edinburgh University Press.

Matras, Yaron (2012). A Grammar of Domari. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Reported on 22nd Ethnologue: Alternate Names: Dom, Gypsy, Mıtrıp, Middle Eastern Romani, Tsigene: User Population: Ethnic population: 28,500 (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Location: Scattered in the region between Mersin and Sanliurfa provinces. Language Status: Threatened. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Dom. Dialects: Karachi (Garachi, Karači, Qarachi). Language Use: Some young people, all adults. Some children in Hatay province reportedly speak the language (2018 B. Herin). All also use Turkish (Herin 2016). Some also use Northern Kurdish (Marsh 2008), Southern Zazaki [diq] (Marsh 2008). Some also use North Levantine Spoken Arabic, among the older generation of Hatay province (Herin 2016). In Diyarbakir and Mardin provinces, Domari is no longer spoken. In its place, a mixed language called Domani has developed which has a morphosyntax based on Kurdish and many Domari lexical items (Herin 2016). Also spoken in Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine and Syria.

 

Language name and locationː Domari, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Turkey [Refer to Ethnologue]
言名称和分布地区多马里语, 叙利亚, 伊拉克, 伊朗等中东, 北非国家和印度

 

1. yíkǎ, yikák

21.  wīs-u-yikák

2. dī, dīs, diḗs, diḗsni

22.

3. tǎ́rǎn, tǎrǎnḗs

23. 

4. štar, štarḗs

24. 

5. pǔnj, punjás

25. 

6. šas, šasás, tǎ́rǎn-wǎ-tǎ́rǎn

26. 

7. ḥōṭ, ḥōṭī́s, štár-wǎ-tǎ́rǎn

27. 

8. štár-wǎ-štǎr

28.  

9. štár-wǎ-štár-wǎ-yikák, štár-wǎ-púnj

29.  wī́s-u-štar-u-štar-wǎ-yikák

10. das, des

30.  ǎ́rǎn das, wǎt

11. daz-wǎ-yikák

40.  štar das, dī wīs

12.

50.  nīm sai

13.

60.  šaš das, tǎ́rǎn wīs, dī wǎt

14.

70.  ḥōṭ das

15.

80.  štar-wǎ-štár das, štar wīs

16.

90.  sai-ilǎ-dás

17.

100. sai

18. das-wǎ-štár-wǎ-štár

200. dī ṣadd dī sai

19. wīs-ilǎ-yikák

1000. das sai, tílli sai

20. wīs, wī́stǎne

2000.

 

Linguist providing data and dateː Dr. Bruno Herin, Université Libre de Bruxelles,
Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres,
Belgium, February 13, 2013
供资料的语言学家: Dr. Bruno Herin, 2013 年 2 月 13 日.

 

Other comments: The data given above are from Southern Domari, Numerals from 1 to 5 are inherited and similar to what is found in northern dialects. The inherited form for “six” was also maintained. The same goes for inherited sai “hundred”. Southern dialects also show Iranian derived items: ḥōṭ “seven”, wīs “twenty” and nīm “half” in nīm sai “fifty” (literally half-hundred”). Also common is a compounding strategy above five with the Arabic coordinator u / wa “and”.

Note that the traditional phonetic symbols and IPA transcriptionː

1. y = I.P.A. [j]

2. h̩ = I.P.A. [ħ]

3. š = I.P.A. [ʃ]

4. č = I.P.A. [tʃ]

5. ǧ, j = I.P.A. [dʒ]

6. s̩ = I.P.A. [s] ~ [sˤ]

7. t̩ = I.P.A. [t] ~ [tˤ]

Macron above vowel indicates length

References

Herin, Bruno (2012). The Domari language of Aleppo (Syria). Linguistic Discovery 12 (2), 1-52.

Macalister, R. A. S. (1914). The language of the Nawar or Zutt, the nomad smiths of Palestine. (Gypsy Lore Society Monographs 3) London: Edinburgh University Press.

Matras, Yaron (2012). A Grammar of Domari. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.


 

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