Language name and location: Darmiya (Darma), India [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区达尔米雅语, 印度

 

1. t̪aku

21.   nasa t̪aku

2. niçju 

22.   nasa niçju 

3. sɯm

23.   nasa sɯm

4. pi

24.   nasa pi

5. ŋaj

25.   nasa ŋaj

6. ʈuku

26.   nasa ʈuku

7. neçju

27.   nasa neçju

8. ɟjɛdu

28.   nasa ɟjɛdu

9. ɡwi

29.   nasa ɡwi

10. ci

30.   sɯmsa

11. cjɛt̪ɛ

40.   pisa / niçju nasa  ( 2 x 20 )

12. cjɛnɛ

50.   ŋasa

13. cjɛsɯm

60.   ʈuksa

14. cjopi

70.   ʈuksa ci, 71. ʈuksa cjɛt̪ɛ, 79. ʈuksa ciɾɡu

15. cjobaŋ

80.   ɟjɛca, 81. ɟjɛca t̪aku, 89. ɟjɛca ɡwi

16. cjɛʈo

90.   ɟjɛca ci, 91. ɟjɛca cjɛt̪ɛ, 99. cjɛt̪ɛ ciɾɡu

17. cjɛni

100. ɾa / tak sɛ ( 'sɛ' from Indo-Aryan )

18. cjobaɾɟi ~ cjobaɾci

200. nɛk sɛ, 300. sɯm sɛ

19. ciɾɡu

1000. ci sɛ / ta hazar < from IA

20. nasa

2000.

 

Linguist providing data and dateː Dr. Christina Marie Willis, Department of Linguistics,
The University of Texas at Austin, Texas, USA,
September 8, 2008.

供资料的语言学家: Dr. Christina Marie Willis, 2008 年 9 月 8 日.

 

Other comments: Darmya has a numeral system mixing with traditional vigesimal system and a new decimal system. Nowadays, many Darma, but not all Darma speakers can count to ten. Some speakers use Hindi numbers ever when they know the Darma

numbers. Often a text will have one speaker using some Darma numbers and some Hindi numbers. The ten-based numerals 'twenty', 'thirty', 'forty', and so forth, contain the morpheme [sa] or [ ca ]. Also, the number 'forty' has an alternate form that is 'two' and 'twenty'. This alternative form appears to be a remnant of the vigesimal system that D. D. Sharma mentioned before. Contrastive tone is found in Darma, but it is attested in a limited number of words. Whether what I find is an example of tonogenesis or the loss of tone, I cannot definitively say. Based on my experience in the Darma community, I would guess that tone is being lost. The paucity of minimal pairs, the difficulty I had in getting speakers to provide words with tone, along with the fact that younger speakers are generally unable to produce tone distinctions in the few words that I have documented with tone all lead me to believe that tone is being lost. I find that there is a two tone contrast: high versus low. The high tone is marked with an acute The high tone is marked with an acute accent above the vowel [ á ] and low tone is unmarked. In general, speakers are unable to articulate how ‘hand’  la and ‘moon’ lá are different; meaning the concept of tone is not familiar to the community. This is not surprising considering the Indo-Aryan languages that are spoken in the area are not tonal.


Language name and location: Darmiya, India [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区达尔米雅语, 印度

 

1. taka /taku

21.   nəsa taku

2. ñišu

22.   nəsa ñišu

3. sum

23.   nəsa sum

4. pi

24.   nəsa pi

5. ŋəi / ŋe

25.   nəsa ŋəi

6. ʈuku

26.   nəsa ʈuku

7. nisu

27.   nəsa nisu

8. zyədu

28.   nəsa zyədu

9. ɡui

29.   nəsa ɡui

10. cì

30.   sum-sa

11. cyədte

40.   pi-sa

12. cyəñi

50.   ŋa-sa

13. cyə-sum

60.   ʈuk-cha

14. cyə-pi

70.   nisu-sa

15. cyə-bəŋ

80.   zyət-cha

16. cyə-ʈhu

90.   ɡui-sa

17. cyəni

100. ra / sɛ  < from Indo-Aryan

18. cyəbci

200. ñisi ra / ñisi sɛ

19. cirɡu

1000. toŋ / həzar < from Indo-Aryan

20. nəsa

2000. do həzar

 

Linguist providing data and dateː Prof. D. D. Sharma , 30 August, 1995
Panjab University, Hoshiarpur, India

供资料的语言学家: Prof. D. D. Sharma, 1995 年 8 月 30 日.

 

Other comments: Darmya has a numeral system mixing with traditional vigesimal system and a new decimal system.

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