Language name and location: Chipewyan (Dëne Sų́łıne), Canada [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区: 奇佩维安语 (Tetsǫ́t’ıné Yatıe), 加拿大

 

1. ʔɪłáɡhe

21.  noónasłaɡhe

2. náke

22.  noónasnáke

3. taɡhe

23.  noónastaɡhe

4. dɪ̨ɡhɪ̨

24.  noónasdɪ̨ɡhɪ̨

5. sųláɡhe

25.  noónasųláɡh

6. ʔełkʼétáɡhe ( 3 + 3 ) *

26.  noónaskʼétáɡh

7. łą́ísdɪ̨ɡhɪ̨

27.  noónasłą́ísdɪ̨ɡhɪ̨

8. ʔełkʼédɪ̨ɡhɪ̨ ( 4 + 4 ) *

28.  noónaskʼédɪ̨ɡhɪ̨

9. ʔełǫǫ́tą

29.  noónasłǫǫ́tą

10. łoǫ́na

30.  toóna

11. ʔɪłáɡheadhel

40.  dɪ̨ɡhɪ̨óna

12. nákeadhel

50.  soloóna

13. taɡheadhel

60.  ʔełkʼétoóna

14. dɪ̨ɡhɪ̨adhel

70.  łą́ísdɪ̨óna

15. sųláɡheadhel

80.  ʔełkʼédɪ̨óna

16. ʔełkʼétáɡheadhel

90.  łǫǫ́toóna

17. łą́ísdɪ̨ɡhɪ̨adhel

100. ʔɪłánoóna

18. ʔełkʼédɪ̨ɡhɪ̨adhel

200. nákeóna

19. łǫǫ́tąądhel

1000. ʔɪłáɡhe lɪmíl *

20. noóna

2000. náke lɪmíl

 

Linguist providing data and dateː Dr. Alessandro Jaker, Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, March 1, 2014.

提供资的语言: Dr. Alessandro Jaker, 1994 年 8 月 3 日.

 

Other comments: Chipewyan (Dëne Sų́łıne), or is now called Tetsǫ́t’ıné Yatıe, is spoken in Dettah, Ndılǫ, and Łútsëlk’é, Northwest Territories, Canada, has a decimal system with substructures for numbers 6 to 8. The thousand ''lɪmíl'' is a loan from French.

The American Phonetic symbols used here areː Nasalization is indicated with a ''hook'' underneath the vowel 

Nasalization is indicated with a ''hook'' underneath the vowels,  uses a few digraphs in place of single letters, and also nasality is written below the vowel, instead of on top. 

This language has contrastive nasality and four contrastive tones (high, low, rising, and falling), double vowel, e.g. "oo" is a long vowel [o:].  Thus, a falling tone is written as

óo in Tetsǫ́ǫt'ıné and oò ın Wıı̀lıı̀deh, whıle a rısıng tone ıs wrıtten oó ın Tetsǫ́ǫt'ıné and òo ın Wıı̀lıı̀deh:  one languages is "high marked" while the other is "low marked," so the default tone is left unwritten in each language.  The digraphs are:

 

gh = velar or uvular voiced fricative

sh = alveopalatal voiceless fricative

zh = alveopalatal voiced fricative

th = interdental voiceless fricative

dh = interdental voiced fricative, etc.

 

Note that the Phonetic transcriptions between IPA and American Phonetic Notationsː

1. gh = IPA [ʁ ], voiced velar fricative.

2. dh = IPA [ð], voiced interdentally fricative.

3. ɬ = IPA [ɬ], voiced lateral fricative.

4. š = IPA [ʃ], voiceless post-alveolar fricative.

5. tɬ = IPA [tɬ], voiceless lateral affricate.

6. tčʼ = IPA [tʃʼ], voiceless ejective affricate.

7. ts = IPA [ts], voiceless dental affricate.

8. tsʼ =IPA [tsʼ], voiceless ejective affricate

9. Under-hooked vowels are nasal vowelsː a̜, e̜, i̜, o̜ and u̜ = IPA ã, ẽ, ĩ, õ and ũ.


Language name and location: Chipewyan (Dëne Sų́łıne), Canada [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区: 奇佩维安语 (Tetsǫ́t’ıné Yatıe), 加拿大

 

1. ʔɪ̨łáɡhe /łághe (basic)

21.  noónasłaɡhe

2. náke

22.  noónasnáke

3. taɡhe

23.  noónastaɡhe

4. dɪ̨ɡhɪ̨

24.  noónasdɪ̨ɡhɪ̨

5. sǫláɡhe

25.  noónasųláɡhe 

6. ʔełkʼétáɡhe ( 3 + 3 ) *

26.  noónaskʼétáɡhe 

7. łą́ísdɪ̨ / łą́sdɪ̨ / totą

27.  noónasłą́ísdɪ̨ɡhɪ̨

8. ʔełkʼédɪ̨ɡhɪ̨ ( 4 + 4 ) * 

28.  noónaskʼédɪ̨ɡhɪ̨

9. ʔełǫǫ́tą / łǫ́ta

29.  noónasłǫǫ́tą

10. honéna

30.  toóna

11. ʔɪ̨łáɡhe cha'adhël ( Cook 2004)

40.  dɪ̨ɡhɪ̨óna

12. náke cha'adhe ( Cook 2004)

50.  soloóna

13. taɡheadhel cha'adhël

60.  ʔełkʼétoóna

14. dɪ̨ɡhɪ̨adhel cha'adhël

70.  łą́ísdɪ̨óna

15. sųláɡheadhel cha'adhël

80.  ʔełkʼédɪ̨óna

16. ʔełkʼétáɡheadhel cha'adhël

90.  łǫǫ́toóna

17. łą́ísdɪ̨ɡhɪ̨adhel cha'adhël

100. ʔɪłánoóna

18. ʔełkʼédɪ̨ɡhɪ̨adhel cha'adhël

200. nákeóna

19. łǫǫ́tąądhel cha'adhël

1000. ʔɪłáɡhe lɪmíl *

20. nónéna ( Cook 2004)

2000. náke lɪmíl

 

Linguist providing data and dateː Dr. Alessandro Jaker, Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, March 1, 2014.

提供资的语言: Dr. Alessandro Jaker, 1994 年 8 月 3 日.

 

Other comments: Chipewyan (Dëne Sų́łıne), or is now called Tetsǫ́t’ıné Yatıe, is spoken in Dettah, Ndılǫ, and Łútsëlk’é, Northwest Territories, Canada, has a decimal system with substructures for numbers 6 to 8. The thousand ''lɪmíl'' is a loan from French.

The American Phonetic symbols used here areː Nasalization is indicated with a ''hook'' underneath the vowel 

 

COMMENTS:
• From 1–10, there is a separate set of numerals for counting humans. (Syncretism for '9'.)
• Human numerals involve nasality or/and -ni, which may be related to the noun dëne
'person'. Overtly dëne in nádëne 'two people'.
• "There is a great deal of variability in pronunciation even within the same
community." (Cook 2004:110). According to my observations, even more variability than
indicated above. Especially with respect to nasality, in both the human and nonhuman
numerals. Also some variation between vowels i and e, and some shortening of forms.
• Cook says the system up to 10 is quinary: Underived terms for 1–5, but 6 is 'three on
three' and 8 is 'four on four' (Cook 2004:110). More literally, 6 is 'three on each other' and
8 is 'four on each other'. E.g. 6: Ɂełe- RECIPROCAL, k’é 'on', taghe 'three'.
• 11–19: "are formed by adding ch’adhëł/Ɂadhëł to the basic forms 'one' to 'nine' " (Cook
2004:110).
• 10, 20, 30, etc.: expressed as multiples of 10 (the term for the factor plus the term for 10).
E.g., 20 = nónéna < náke 'two' or perhaps náh 'twice' + honéna 'ten'. Cook paraphrases as
'two tens' (20), 'three tens' (30), etc. Cf. Cook 2004, Elford & Elford 1998.
• Counting single digits from twenty: The decimal base plus the postposition ts’n 'towards'
plus the single digit. Cf. Cook 2004, Elford & Elford 1998.
• 100, 200, etc: Expressed as multiples of 100. The factor Ɂįłághe is often left out in the
word for 100: Just honénóna. Same pattern with 1000, 2000, etc.
• Words for 100: behchënaze 'little sled' [behchën 'sled' + -aze DIMINUTIVE] (cf. Cook 2004,
where it is beshchënaze, not sure if this is a typo); honénóna possibly from honéna +
honéna 'ten tens'. Not sure of etymology of honéłdą.
• Words for 1000: dechënchogh ’big stick’ [dechën 'stick', -chogh AUGMENTATIVE] (cf.
Cook 2004); lamíl borrowed from French mille.
• Syntactically, numerals can modify a noun (usually preceding the noun), or they can stand
alone. Not sure if ellipsis is involved when numerals occur without noun, or if they
function like nouns. I think they are like nouns.
WHAT MIGHT ALSO INTEREST YOU:
You can take a look at the older forms of the numerals in Legoff 1889:
Legoff, Laurent. 1889. Grammaire de la langue Montagnaise. Montréal, Québec: 50, Rue de
Cotte, 50. [Montagnais is the French name of the language.]
3
Numerals are discussed on p. 103ff. The orthography is a bit idiosyncratic (developed by a French speaker without recourse to the IPA); it is explained on p. 13ff. I am attaching the relevant pages as PDF.
These older forms of the numerals are longer, and I think especially in the cases of 7 and
9 they may reveal an etymology which is no longer transparent in the contemporary forms. Nasalization is indicated with a ''hook'' underneath the vowels, 
uses a few digraphs in place of single letters, and also nasality is written below the vowel, instead of on top. 

This language has contrastive nasality and four contrastive tones (high, low, rising, and falling), double vowel, e.g. "oo" is a long vowel [o:].  Thus, a falling tone is written as

óo in Tetsǫ́ǫt'ıné and oò ın Wıı̀lıı̀deh, whıle a rısıng tone ıs wrıtten oó ın Tetsǫ́ǫt'ıné and òo ın Wıı̀lıı̀deh:  one languages is "high marked" while the other is "low marked," so the default tone is left unwritten in each language.  The digraphs are:

 

gh = velar or uvular voiced fricative

sh = alveopalatal voiceless fricative

zh = alveopalatal voiced fricative

th = interdental voiceless fricative

dh = interdental voiced fricative, etc.

 

Note that the Phonetic transcriptions between IPA and American Phonetic Notationsː

1. gh = IPA [ʁ ], voiced velar fricative.

2. dh = IPA [ð], voiced interdentally fricative.

3. ɬ = IPA [ɬ], voiced lateral fricative.

4. š = IPA [ʃ], voiceless post-alveolar fricative.

5. tɬ = IPA [tɬ], voiceless lateral affricate.

6. tčʼ = IPA [tʃʼ], voiceless ejective affricate.

7. ts = IPA [ts], voiceless dental affricate.

8. tsʼ =IPA [tsʼ], voiceless ejective affricate

9. Under-hooked vowels are nasal vowelsː a̜, e̜, i̜, o̜ and u̜ = IPA ã, ẽ, ĩ, õ and ũ.


Language name and location: Chipewyan, Canada [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区: 奇佩维安语, 加拿大

 

1. (ʔĩ)ɬáʁe

21.  nónéna t͡sʼə́n ɬáʁe  *

2. náke

22.  nónéna t͡sʼə́n náke

3. taʁe

23.  nónéna t͡sʼə́n taʁe

4. dĩʁĩ

24.  nónéna t͡sʼə́n dĩʁĩ

5. sõláʁe

25.  nónéna t͡sʼə́n sõláʁe

6. (ʔe)ɬkʼétaʁe ( 3 + 3 ) *

26.  nónéna t͡sʼə́n (ʔe)ɬkʼétaʁe

7. ɬaísdĩ / totã

27.  nónéna t͡sʼə́n ɬaísdĩ / totã

8. (ʔe)ɬkʼédĩ    ( 4 + 4 ) *

28.  nónéna t͡sʼə́n (ʔe)ɬkʼédĩ

9. (ʔe)ɬótã

29.  nónéna t͡sʼə́n (ʔe)ɬótã

10. honéna

30.  tonéna    ( < taʁe + honéna )

11. (ʔĩ)ɬáʁe t͡ʃʼaðəɬ

40.  donéna   ( < dĩʁĩ + honéna )

12. náke t͡ʃʼaðəɬ

50.  sõlónéna ( < sõláʁe+ honéna )

13. taʁe t͡ʃʼaðəɬ

60.  (ʔe)ɬkʼétonéna ((ʔe)ɬkʼétaʁe+ honéna ) 

14. dĩʁĩ t͡ʃʼaðəɬ

70.  ɬaísdonéna  ( <ɬaísdĩ + honéna )

15. sõláʁe t͡ʃʼaðəɬ

80.  tɬàšdí ( <(ʔe)ɬkʼédĩ + honéna )

16. (ʔe)ɬkʼétaʁe t͡ʃʼaðəɬ

90.  (ʔe)ɬótonéna (<(ʔe)ɬótã + honéna )

17. ɬaísdĩ t͡ʃʼaðəɬ / totã t͡ʃʼaðəɬ

100. ʔĩɬáʁe beʃt͡ʃənaze * / honénóna *

18. (ʔe)ɬkʼédĩ t͡ʃʼaðəɬ

200. náke beʃt͡ʃənaze / náke honénóna

19. (ʔe)ɬótã t͡ʃʼaðəɬ

1000. ʔĩɬáʁe det͡ʃənt͡ʃóʁ * / lamíl *

20. nónéna ( < náke + honéna  )

2000. náke det͡ʃənt͡ʃóʁ / náke  lamíl

 

Linguist providing data and dateː Prof. Eung-Do Cook, Department of Linguistics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, October 6, 2008.

提供资的语言: Prof. Eung-Do Cook, 2008 年 10 月 6 日.

 

Other comments: Chipewyan numerals up to 'ten' are based on a quinary system as can be seen from 'six' ( 'three on three' ) and 'eight' ( 'four on four'). Derived numerals from 'eleven' to 'nineteen' are formed by adding t͡ʃʼaðəɬ or ʔaðəɬ to the basic forms 'one' to 'nine'. Numerals from 'twenty' and beyond are based on the basic terms. Note that 'twenty' to 'ninety' consists of the basic terms ('one' to 'nine') and honéna 'ten'. The word t͡sʼə́n in compound numbers 'twenty-one' to 'twenty-nine' means 'to'. There are two forms for 'hundred' and 'thousand'. 'hundred 'beʃt͡ʃənaze means 'one little sled' and honénóna means derived from English 'hundred'. The word for 'thousand' det͡ʃənt͡ʃóʁ means 'one big stick' and lamíl might be a loanword from French 'mil'.

Note that the Phonetic transcriptions between IPA and American Phonetic Notationsː

1. gh = IPA [ʁ ], voiced velar fricative.

2. dh = IPA [ð], voiced interdentally fricative.

3. ɬ = IPA [ɬ], voiced lateral fricative.

4. š = IPA [ʃ], voiceless post-alveolar fricative.

5. tɬ = IPA [tɬ], voiceless lateral affricate.

6. tčʼ = IPA [tʃʼ], voiceless ejective affricate.

7. ts = IPA [ts], voiceless dental affricate.

8. tsʼ =IPA [tsʼ], voiceless ejective affricate

9. 'The reduce vowel ë ' is phonetically either [ə] or [ɛ].

10. Under-hooked vowels are nasal vowelsː a̜, e̜, i̜, o̜ and u̜ = IPA ã, ẽ, ĩ, õ and ũ.

     There are two tones in Chipewyanː á = high and low tone unmarked.


 

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