Language name and locationː Cabécar, Costa Rica [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区卡维卡尔语, 哥斯达黎加


1. /é-/

2. /bó-/

3. /bādʒã́-/ ([mã̀ɲã́-])

4. /pkí-/, /tkí-/, /hkí-/(northern dialect),  tkɪ́-/ (southern dialect) *

5. /skẽ́-/

6. /sà huɺà kĩ́ é-/ (litː 'our hand plus one' )

7. /sà huɺà kĩ́ bó-/ (litː 'our hand plus two' )

8. /sà huɺà kĩ́ bādʒã́-/ (litː 'our hand plus three' )

9. /sà huɺà kĩ́ pkí-/ (litː 'our hand plus four' )

10. /sà huɺà bótkʊ̀ / (litː 'our two hands' )

11. /sà huɺà bótkʊ̀ kĩ́ é-/  (litː 'our two hands plus one' )

12. /sà huɺà bótkʊ̀ kĩ́ bó-/

13. /sà huɺà bótkʊ̀ kĩ́ bādʒã́-/

14. /sà huɺà bótkʊ̀ pkí-/

15. /sà huɺà bādʒã́kʊ̀ /  / (litː 'our three hands' )

16. /sà huɺà bādʒã́kʊ̀ kĩ́ é-/

17. /sà huɺà bādʒã́kʊ̀ kĩ́ bó-/ 

18. /sà huɺà bādʒã́kʊ̀ kĩ́ bādʒã́-/ 

19. /sà huɺà bādʒã́kʊ̀ pkí-/ 

20. /sà huɺà tkɪ́tkʊ̀ / (southern dialect), /sà huɺà pkɪ́tkʊ̀ / or  /sà huɺà hkɪ́tkʊ̀ /   *      


Linguists providing data and dateː Enrique Margery-Peña (the data on the current numeral system) and Prof. Adolfo Constenla-Umaña (the other data), University of Costa Rica, Republic of Costa Rica, February 16, 2010.    

供资料的语言学家: Enrique Margery-Peña and Prof. Adolfo Constenla-Umaña,

2010 年 2 月 16 日.


Other comments: Cabécar (traditional name in Spanish), also Cabécara in colonial sources (/kabékadà/[kabékaɾà] is the name of the ethnic group). /sé ktʊ́/ ‘our speech’ (the name in the Cabécar language: 'our speech'; /sé~sà/ 'first person plural, inclusive', /ktʊ́/'speech', is spoken in Costa Rica, along the Atlantic slopes of the Talamanca Mountain range and in adjacent parts of the plains (Turrialba county in the province of Cartago; Matina, Limón and Talamanca counties in the province of Limón). Also in the locality of Ujarrás in the southern part of the Pacific slope of the Talamanca Mountain Range (Buenos Aires county in the province of Puntarenas), due to migration from southwestern Talamanca at the end of the 19th century. The language has two main dialects: (1) the southern dialect is spoken in Ujarrás and southwestern Talamanca, (2) the northern dialect in northern Talamanca, and in the Limón, Matina, and Turrialba counties. Each dialect presents subdialects. Cabécar is a language with numeral classifiers. There are six numeral series (five of them with characteristic suffixes): (a) human, (b) round (suffix /-uʊ́/, (c) long (suffix /-tabà~-tabʊ̀/, (d) flat (suffix /-tkà~-tkʊ̀/), (e) sets (suffix /-dʒakà~-dʒʊkʊ̀/ , and (f) species-parts-weight units (suffix /-kà/). It must be pointed out that classes (b), (c) and (d) are used to count things that not necessarily have the corresponding shape. For example, class (b) is used to count seeds, pots, and years; class (c) is used to count mammals, snakes, alligators, fish, and trees, and class (d) birds, insects with wings, turtles, houses, months, and body ornaments such as earrings and necklaces. Series (a), (b) and (d) present a stem formative /-ɺ/ which occurs before the series suffix in (b) and (d). Due to analogy, some speakers include /-ɺ/ in some of the numerals of other series. Only five numeral roots occur: /é-/ 'one', /bó-/ 'two', / bãdʒã́-/ ([mã̀ɲã́-]) 'three', /pkí-/, /tkí-/, /hkí-/ (northern dialect), /tkɪ́-/ (southern dialect) 'four', /skẽ́-/ 'five'. Numerals from six to nine are formed with the phrase /sà huɺà/ 'our hand' followed by //kɪ̃́// 'plus' and the appropriate numeral from one to four. Numerals from ten to fourteen are formed with the phrase /sà huɺà bótkʊ̀/ 'our two hands' followed by /kɪ̃́/ 'plus' and the appropriate numeral from one to four. Numerals from fifteen to nineteen are formed with the phrase /sà huɺà bãdʒã́tkʊ̀/ 'three hands of ours' followed by /kɪ̃́/ 'plus' and the appropriate numeral from one to four. Twenty is /sà huɺà tkɪ́tkʊ̀/ (southern dialect), /sà huɺà pkítkʊ̀/, /sà huɺà tkítkʊ̀/ or /sà huɺà hkítkʊ̀/ (northern dialect). For quantities higher than 20, Margery Peña's 26 informants used Spanish numerals.


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