Language name and location: Bugun (Khowa), India [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区布贡 (科瓦), 印度

 

1. dʒió / dʒó

21.  itʃʰɑk nɑ dʒió

2. ɲīŋ

22.  itʃʰɑk nɑ ɲīŋ 

3. ɨm

23.  itʃʰɑk nɑ ɨm

4. wí

24.  itʃʰɑk nɑ wí

5. ɡwə́

25.  itʃʰɑk nɑ ɡwə́

6. rə̀b 

26.  itʃʰɑk nɑ rə̀b 

7. mɪlījɑ́

27.  itʃʰɑk nɑ mɪlījɑ́

8. mīljɑ́

28.  itʃʰɑk nɑ mīljɑ́

9. dìɡē

29.  itʃʰɑk nɑ dìɡē

10. súɑ̃

30.  sɑ ɨm 

11. snɑ dʒió

40.  sɑ wí

12. snɑ ɲīŋ 

50.  sɑ ɡwə́

13. snɑ ɨm

60.  sɑ rə̀b 

14. snɑ wí

70.  sɑ mɪlījɑ́

15. snɑ ɡwə́

80.  sɑ mīljɑ́

16. snɑ rə̀b 

90.  sɑ dìɡē

17. snɑ mīljɑ́

100. wiɑm dʒɑ, 200. wiɑm ɲīŋ 

18. snɑ mīljɑ́

400. wiɑm wí  800. wiɑm mīljɑ́

19. snɑ dìɡē

1000. hɑzrai*, wiɑm suɑ̃  

20. itʃʰɑk

2000. hɑzrai ɲīŋ 

 

Linguist providing data and dateː Miss Prarthana Acharyya, Ph.D Student, Linguistics Research Scholar at the Indian Institute of Technology, Guahati, India, July 23, 2018.

Data taken from " Numerals in Bugun, Deuri and Nocte" by Madhumita Barbora,

Prarthana Acharyya and Trisja Wango, North East Indian Linguistics 7 (NEIL 7),

Asia-Pacific Linguistics, Colleagues of Asia and the Pacific, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, 2015.

供资料的语言学家: Miss Prarthana Acharyya, 2018 年 7 月 23 日.

 

Other comments: Bugan has a decimal system. In Bugun for the addition process, a conjunctive marker na combines the numerals. The conjunctive marker na has a full form nana ‘and’. When numerals eleven to nineteen are built, the cardinal numeral suã ‘ten’ i.e. the base n combines with the conjunctive na ‘and’ and is followed by y i.e. the basic cardinals one to nine add up to the base numeral. For instance when dʒió ‘one’ follows suã na to form suã na dʒio ‘ten and one’ we have ‘eleven’. Native speakers use the weak form sna of suã na when they build the digits from eleven to nineteen by deleting the diphthong // to from a syllable initial cluster sna; In case of the cardinals 21 to 29 the conjunctive na follows the basic numeral itʃʰɑk  ‘twenty’ with the numerals 1 to 9. In regular speech the conjunctive na is dropped by the native speakers.

In Bugun the multiples from thirty to ninety are formed when sa a variant of the numeral súã ‘ten’ multiplies with the basic numerals ‘three’ to ‘nine’. The multiples of hundred are formed with the core numeral wiam ‘hundred’. Native speakers use the word hazrai for thousand instead of wiam suã. The numeral hazrai is derived from hazar ‘thousand’, a numeral found in most Indo-Aryan languages.

Note that we observe that Bugun numerals have three tones high, mid and low. It must be noted that tone in Bugun is disappearing mainly due to the impact of languages like Hindi, Nepali, Assamese and others. Tone variations are hardly noticed in Bugun, Deuri and Nocte due to language contact. As most speakers use Hindi, Assamese or Nepali in their everyday life, they have lost tone in their native languages. Also due to lack of active use of native language they can no longer distinguish tone variation nor can they use them.


Language name and location: Bugun (Khowa), India [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区布贡 (科瓦), 印度

 

1. jo / dʒyɔ/

21.  ichak-jo /  atʃak nɛ dʒyɔ /

2. nyeng / ɲɛ̌ŋ /

22.  ichak-nyeng

3. um / ɨ̀m /

23.  ichak-um

4. wi / bvì /

24.  ichak-wi

5. kua / uwə̌ /

25.  ichak-kua

6. rap / ràp /

26.  ichak-rap

7. millie / mlyə /

27.  ichak-millie

8. mla / mla /

28.  ichak-mla

9. diɡe  / dɡe /

29.  ichak diɡe

10. sũa / sùŋá /

30.  sa-um / sna bvì / 

11. sna-jo /sna dʒyɔ /

40.  sa-wi / sna bvi /

12. sna nyeng / sna ɲɛ̌ŋ /

50.  sa-kua / sna gua /

13. sna-um / sna ɨ̀m /

60.  sa-rap

14. sna-wi / sna bvì / 

70.  sa-millie

15. sna-kua / sna gua /

80.  sa-mla

16. sna-rap / sna rap /

90.  sa diɡe

17. sna-millie / sna mlya /

100. wiem-jo / yem dʒa /

18. sna-mla / sna mla /

200. ??

19. sna-diɡe / sna dge /

1000. ??

20. ichak / atʃak /

2000. ??

 

Data sourceː Bugan language, 1990. Government of Arunachal Pradesh, India

 

Other comments: Bugan is a tonal and related to the Sulung language.


                            

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