Language name and locationː  Basque, Spain, France [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区巴斯克语, 西班牙, 法国

 

1. bat /bat/

21.  hoɡeitabat /hoɡeitabat/

2. bi  /bi/

22.  hoɡeitabi

3. hiru /hiɾu/

23.  hoɡeitahiru

4. lau /lau/

24.  hoɡeitalau

5. bost /bos̪t/

25.  hoɡeitabost

6. sei /s̪ei/

26.  hoɡeitasei

7. zazpi /s̻aspi /

27.  hoɡeitazapzi

8. zortzi /s̻ort͡s̻i /

28.  hoɡeitazortzi

9. bederatzi /bedeɾat͡s̻i/

29.  hoɡeitabederatzi

10. hamar /hamar/

30.  hoɡeitahamar ( 20 + 10 )

11. hamaika

40.  berroɡei /beroɡei/ ( 2 x 20 )

12. hamabi

50.  berroɡeitahamar  ( 2 x 20 + 10 )

13. hamahiru

60.  hiruroɡei /hiɾoɾoɡei/ ( 3 x 20 )

14. hamalau

70.  hiruroɡeitahamar ( 3 x 20 + 10 )

15. hamabost

80.  larroɡei /laroɡei/ ( 4 x 20 )

16. hamasei

90.  larroɡeitahamar ( 4 x 20 + 10 )

17. hamazazpi

100. ehun /ehun/

18. hemezortzi

200. berrehun / erehun/

19. hemeretzi

1000. mila < Celtic < Latin

20. hoɡei /hoɡei/  

2000. bi mila

 

Linguist providing data and dateː Prof. Georges Rebuschi, LACITO-CNRS (Langues et civilisations à tradition orale), Paris, France. April 11, 2013.

供资料的语言学家: Prof. Georges Rebuschi, 2013 年 4 月 11 日.

 

Other comments: Basque has a vigesimal system of counting.
1. Basque is not only spoken in Spain, it is also spoken in southern France (across the border, on the Atlantic coast, of course).

2. Re: the pronunciation, most letters have the IPA value (g, k etc.).

Note however

 (i) that z is [s] – voiceless and that s is an apico-alveolar fricative;

(ii) that when an i or u follows another vowel, you get a diphthong, e.g. lau '4’ is

     [law]; for twenty/20, you've got hogoi (Northern/Continental Basque)  and hogei

     (Southern/Peninsular B): [hogoy / hogey]. ( By the way, I don't know if you use [j
      or [y] – for the front glide...)

(iii) the double -rr- (an alveolar rhotic trill [r]) in berrogei, berrrehun is OK, but the
      there is only one r – a mere alveolar rhotic flap, in larogei (80) (the old Northern
      form was laur — just as the old Northern form for three was hirur).

(iv) Finally, the etymology of mila is of course correct, but there is a Celtic etymology
      for hogei: cf. Breton ugent [ügent] (in many word, there is, historically, no initial h
      in many words that begin with this letter today, and it is not pronounced in
      Southern/Peninsular Basque). (The Welsh word for 20 is closely related to the
      Breton word).
 

 

Basque Phonemic Systemː
Consonantsː
 

 

Labial

Lamino-dental

Apico-Alveolar

Palatal or postalvelar

Velar

Glottal

Plosive

p, b

t, d

 

 tt, -tt /c/ dd, -id-/ɟ/

k, ɡ

q

Fricative

f

 z /s̻/

  s /s̪/

x /ʃ/, j/ʝ/

  

 h

Affricate

 

   tz /t͡s̻/

  ts /t͡s̻/

   tx /t͡ʃ/

 

 

Nasal

m

 n

 

  ŋ

 

Lateral

 

 l

 

ll, -il- /ʎ/

 

 

Trill

 

 r

 

r, -rr-,-r/r/

 

 

Tap

  

 

 

-r- /r/

 

 

 

Note that Basque has a distinction between laminal and apical articulation for
alveolar fricatives and affricatives. The orthographic z is pronounced as IPA /s̻/,
and s is pronounced as IPA [s̪] as in most European languages. Basque also feathers
postalveolar sibilants /ʃ/, written x, and /t͡ʃ/, written tx.

Apart from the fact that borrowed words that begin with an r- (in the other
language) can also get an initial a-: arratoi ‘rat’ (cf. ratón which, in Spanish means
 ‘mouse’ nowadays...)
 

Vowelsː

Same as Spanish for most speakers.


Language name and locationː  Basque, Spain, France [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区巴斯克语, 西班牙, 法国

 

1. bat

21.  hogeitabat

2. bi

22.  hogeitabi

3. hiru

23.  hogeitahiru

4. lau

24.  hogeitalau

5. bost

25.  hogeitabost

6. sei

26.  hogeitasei

7. zazpi

27.  hogeitazapzi

8. zortzi

28.  hogeitazortzi

9. bederatzi

29.  hogeitabederatzi

10. hamar

30.  hogeitahamar ( 20 + 10 )

11. hamaika

40.  berrogei ( 2 x 20 )

12. hamabi

50.  berrogeitahamar  ( 2 x 20 + 10 )

13. hamahiru

60.  hirurogei ( 3 x 20 )

14. hamalau

70.  hirurogeitahamar ( 3 x 20 + 10 )

15. hamabost

80.  larrogei ( 4 x 20 )

16. hamasei

90.  larrogeitahamar ( 4 x 20 + 10 )

17. hamazazpi

100. ehun

18. hemezortzi

200. berrehun

19. hemeretzi

1000. mila < Latin

20. hogei

2000. bi mila

 

Linguist providing data and dateː Mr. Jose Luis D. Lixundia Askondo. Académie de la Langue Basque / Academy of Basque language, Bilbao, Spain, October 21, 1983.

供资料的语言学家: Mr. Jose Luis D. Lixundia Askondo, 1983 年 10 月 21 日.

 

Other comments: Basque has a vigesimal system of counting.


                            

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