Language name and location: A'tong, India, Bangladesh [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区阿通, 印度, 孟加拉

 

1. ɕʰa    s = IPA [ɕʰ ~ ɕ] 

21.  kʰolɡrək.ɕʰa

2. ɡəni

22.  kʰolɡrək.ɡəni

3. ɡətʰam

22.  kʰolɡrək.ɡətʰam

4. biri    y = IPA [j]

24.  kʰolɡrək.biri

5. baŋa

25.  kʰolɡrək.baŋa 

6. korok

26.  kʰolɡrək.dok 

7. ɕʰene    s = IPA [ɕʰ ~ ɕ]

27.  kʰolɡrək.ɕʰene

8. t͡ɕatɡək   c = IPA [tɕ]

28.  kʰolɡrək.cʰet   

9. t͡ɕəkʰəw

29.  kʰolɡrək.sku

10. t͡ɕəjɡək   y = IPA [j]

30.  kʰolat.t͡ɕi   ( 20 +10) ?

11. t͡ɕi.tsa

40.  ɕʰot.biri

12. t͡ɕi.ni

50.  ɕʰot.buŋa

13. t͡ɕi.tʰam

60.  ɕʰot.dok

14. t͡ɕi.biri

70.  ɕʰot.ɕʰene

15. t͡ɕi.raŋa

80.  ɕʰot.t͡ɕet

16. t͡ɕi.dok

90.  ɕʰot.suku

17. t͡ɕi.ɕʰene

100. rad͡ʑaɕʰa a    j = IPA [ dʑ]

18. t͡ɕi.tcʰat

200. rad͡ʑani, 400. rad͡ʑabiri

19. t͡ɕi.suku

1000. had͡ʑalɕʰa  ( had͡ʑal from Indic )

20. kʰolɡək

2000. had͡ʑalni

 

Linguist providing data and dateː Mr. Sansuma Brahma, Junior Research Fellow,

Central Institute of Indian Languages, Mysore, India, August 12, 2018.

供资料的语言学家Mr. Sansuma Brahma, 2018 年 8 月 12 日.

 

Other comments: A'tong of Garo is spoken in Siju, South Garo Hills, Meghalaya, India.

 A'tong has developed into a decimal system and became a toneless Tibeto-Burman language now, this might be due to the influence of toneless Khasi which is Austro-Asiatic language, but this theory is still controversial. 

Note that the traditional symbol 'c' = IPA [tɕ], ''j' = IPA [],  s = IPA [ɕʰ ~ ɕ],

 'y' = IPA [j]

 

A'tong Phonemic Chart:

Consonants:

 

Bilabial

Alveolar

Alveo-palatal

velar

Glottal

Stops

p, pʰ, b

t, tʰ, d

 

k, kʰ, g

 

Affricates

 

 

 c[tɕ], j[dʑ]

 

 

Fricatives

 

 

 s [ɕʰ ~ ɕ]

 

h

Nasals

m

n

 

ŋ

 

Tap or trill

 

r [ɾ ~ r]

 

 

 

Approximant

 

l

 

 

 

Glides

w

 

 y [j]

 

 

 


Language name and location: A'tong, India, Bangladesh [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区阿通, 印度, 孟加拉

 

1. roŋ sa

21.  kʰole roŋ sa / kʰolɡrək sa

2. roŋ ni

22.  kʰole roŋ ni / kʰolɡrək ni

3. roŋ tʰam

22.  kʰole roŋ tʰam / / kʰolɡrək tʰam

4. bərəy     y = IPA [j]

24.  kʰole bərəy / kʰole roŋ bəri

5. baŋa

25.  kʰole baŋa / kʰole roŋ baŋa 

6. korok

26.  kʰole korok  / kʰole roŋ korok 

7. sene

27.  kʰole sene / kʰole roŋ sene

8. catɡək   c = IPA [tɕ]

28.  kʰole catɡək / kʰole roŋ catɡək

9. cəkʰəw

29.  kʰole cəkʰəw / kʰole roŋ cəkʰəw 

10. cəyɡək

30.  kʰole cəy

11. cit sa

40.  rumʔ ni ( 20 x 2 ) / sot bəri

12. ci ni

50.  rumʔ ni cəyɡək / sot boŋa

13. ci tʰam

60.  rumʔ tʰam ( 20 x 3) / sotok ~ sotdok

14. ci bəri

70.  rumʔ tʰam cəyɡək / sot sene ~ səni

15. ci raŋa ~ ci baŋa (calque on Garo)

80.  rumʔ (kʰolcaŋ) bərəy ( 20 x 4) / sot cet

16. ci dok

90.  rumʔ (kʰolcaŋ) bərəy cəyɡək 

17. ci sene ~ ci səni

100. raja sa       j = IPA [ dʑ]

18. ci tsat

200. raja ni

19. ci səkʰu

1000. hajal hajar sa ( hajal from Indic )

20. kʰolɡək / kʰolɡrək /  kʰol < Garo  

Note: Only the form kholgryk (with the
     /r/) is a loan from Garo. The other
     two forms are not loans from Garo.

2000. hajal ni


Language name and location: A'tong, India, Bangladesh [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区阿通, 印度, 孟加拉

 

1. wan  ( English ) / ēk ( Hindi )  

21.  twenti wan

2. tu ( English ) / do ( Hindi )

22.  twenti tu

3. tri ( English ) / tin ( Hindi )

22.  twenti tri

4. por ( English ) / ca ~ car ( Hindi )

24.  twenti por

5. payp ( English ) / panc ( Hindi )

25.  twenti payp

6. siks ~ sik ( English ) / ce ( Hindi )

26.  twenti siks

7. seben ( English ) / sat ( Hindi )

27.  twenti seben

8. et ( English ) / at ( Hindi )

28.  twenti et

9. nayn ( English ) / no ( Hindi )

29.  twenti nayn

10. ten  ( English ) / dəs~ das  ( Hindi )

30.  tərti

11. ileben ( English ) / ɡyara ( Hindi )

40.  porti

12. twelp ( English ) / bara ( Hindi )

50.  pipti

13. tərtin

60.  sikti

14. portin

70.  sebenti

15. piptin

80.  eti [e.ti]

16. sikstin ~ siktin

90.  naynti

17. sebentin

100. wan handrət

18. etin

200. tu handrət

19. nayntin

1000. wan tawsən

20. twenti 

2000. tu tawsən

 

Linguist providing data and dateː Dr. Seino van Breugel, Department of Linguistics, La Trobe University, Australia, December 27, 2009,  December 24, 2013.

Reference: van Breugel, Seino. 2014. A grammar of Atong. Leiden Boston: Brill.

供资料的语言学家: Dr. Seino van Breugel, 2009 年 12 月 27 日, 2013 年 12 月 24 日.

 

Other comments: A'tong has two sets of numeral systems (one is archaic vigesimal and

a decimal influenced by Garo) and modern loan numerals with phonological adaptations from English and Hindi that they are only used to count certain things and participate in different constructions than the indigenous numerals. Sound changes occurred when the numerals were borrowed into A'tong. The original nasalisation of the Hindi source language in the numeral pãc 'five' has been lost in A'tong but consonant clusters are retained in panc '5' and gyara '11'. The retroflex stop in (āʈ) 'eight' has lost its retroflexion. The Hindi aspirated palatal affricate phoneme (ch) has been replaced by /c/ in A'tong. The difference between the vowels (aw) and (o) in (do) '2) and (naw) '9' and the length distinctions on other vowels have disappeared in A'tong. Finally, the numerals '4' can been pronounced with or without final /d/ and 10 has two allomorphs dəs ~das reflecting Hindi (das).

 

A'tong Phonemic Chart:

Consonants:

 

Bilabial

Alveolar

Alveo-palatal

velar

Glottal

Stops

p, pʰ, b

t, tʰ, d

 

k, kʰ, g

 

Affricates

 

 

 c[tɕ], j[dʑ]

 

 

Fricatives

 

 

 s [ɕʰ ~ ɕ]

 

h

Nasals

m

n

 

ŋ

 

Tap or trill

 

r [ɾ ~ r]

 

 

 

Approximant

 

l

 

 

 

Glides

w

 

 y [j]

 

 

 

Vowelsː

 

Front

Central

Back

Close

i [i ~ ɪ]

 

u [ɯ ~ u]

Mid

e [e ~ ɛ]

 ə [ə]

o [ɔ ~ o]

Open

e

 a [ɑ ~ a]

 


 

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