Language name and locationː Araona, Bolivia [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区阿劳纳语, 玻利维亚,


1. pea:da (litː one)

2. betakata (litː few restricted to two)

3. kimiʃa ( < Aymara or Quechua )

4. mipakata (litː four, the etymology of this word is opaque)

5. eme ʃokwe (litː other different finger, 'thumb')

6. eme ʃokwe peaːda nae (litː 'thumb with one')

7. eme ʃokwe betakata nae (litː 'thumb with two')

8. eme ʃokwe kimiʃa nae (litː 'thumb with three')

9. eme ʃokwe mipakata nae (litː 'thumb with four')

10. eme detse (litː 'both hands')

11. eme detse peaːda nae (litː 'both hands with one')

12. eme detse betakata nae (litː 'both hands with two')

13. eme detse peaːda nae (litː 'both hands with three')

14. eme detse mipakata nae (litː 'both hands with four')

15. eme kimʃa (litː 'three hands')

16. eme kimʃakata peaːda nae (litː 'three hands with one') 

17. eme kimʃakata betakata nae (litː 'three hands with two') 

18. eme kimʃakata kimiʃa nae (litː 'three hands with three') 

19. eme kimʃakata mipakata nae (litː 'three hands with four') 

20. eme mipakata (litː 'four hands') 


Linguist providing data and dateː Dr. Carola Emkow, Free University of Berlin, Germany, September 9, 2008.

提供资的语言: Dr. Carola Emkow, 2008 年 9 月 9 日.


Other comments: The Araona have three different numeral systems:

1. A binary-quinary system, which only has number 'one' peaːda (the root pea means

    'one' or 'other' and and number 'two' beta or few.

2. A quinary system listed on the above table. The counting system involves a quinary
    system from 'five' onwards. According to Heine (1997: 19), quinary systems have
    two base numbers, the cardinal numbers 'five' and 'twenty'. This implies that both
    hand(s) and feet are used in counting. The base numbers are most likely to be noun
    phrases. In the binary-quinary system of Araona, only 'twenty' is a noun phrase.
    The numeral 'five' is a clause translating as 'it is only one hand'.

    Acoording to Heine (1997) numerals between 'six' and 'nine', 'eleven' and 'fourteen',
    and 'sixteen' and 'nineteen' typically have clausal morphosyntax. Araona accords
    with Heine's predictions. The numerals from six to nine translate into 'this side
    (which is now used for counting) it is only one/two/three/four'. Numerals from
    eleven to fourteen are both phrasal and clausal literally translating into 'both hand
    (plus) its is only one/two/three/four'. Numerals from sixteen to nineteen translate
    into 'the foot on this side (now used for counting) it is only one/two/three/four'.
    The numeral ten is a clause literally meaning 'only both hands are finished' (that is
    the feet have not been used yet).

     This system is in line with Heine's prediction that the most common operation used
    in building numerals is addition, frequently expressed by means of the comitative

    The system is in a way 'neater' that the binary-quinary one in that it spells out an
    arithmetic operation explicitly by using the comitative. All the numerals are noun

    In this system the hand is the only body part used for counting. Counting up to
    twenty is done by means of four hands, and no longer two hands and two feet. In
    contrast to the previous system, the word for 'four' is not detsekata but mipakata
 whose etymology is not opaque (see Table 11-3).

    In the quinary system the actual procedure of counting is accounted for. People only
    use their fingers (and not their toes) when demonstrating counting. The numeral
    'five' refers to the thumb and not to the hand. To understand this, one needs to know
    how the Araona count. They start counting with the little finger (for 'one'), then the
    ring finger, the middle finger, the index finger, and finally the thumb for 'five'. Thus,
    the thumb equals the numeral 'five' and finishes off one quinary block. The meaning
    'only' in ~kata 'Intens' meaning 'very/'only' results from the way in which counting

    Numerals from six to nine are expressed as 'thumb (hand) with one/two/three/four
   (fingers)'. The numeral 'ten' translates into 'both hands' and the numerals from
   'eleven' to 'fourteen' into 'both hands with one/two/three/four'.
   The numeral 'fifteen' means 'three hands'. In the numerals from sixteen to 'nineteen'
   translate into 'three hands (only) with one/two/three/four'.

3. An Araona-Spanish system.

   1. peaːda, 2.betakata, 3.kimiʃa, 4.kwatolo < Spanish cuatro, 5. siko < Sp. cinco,

   6. sei < Sp. sei, 7. siete < Sp. siete, 8. otʃo < Sp. ocho, 9. noebe < Sp. nueve,

  10. dyies < Sp. diez


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